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Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson – Here are my five lessons and takeaways

Why Nations Fail• THIS BOOK IS about the huge differences in incomes and standards of living that separate the rich countries of the world, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Germany, from the poor, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa, Central America, and South Asia.
• One might think that the fact that world inequality is so huge and consequential and has such sharply drawn patterns would mean that it would have a well-accepted explanation. Not so.
• Of course, our theory is all about how nations can take steps toward prosperity—by transforming their institutions from extractive to inclusive.
• The differences between the United States and Mexico are in turn small compared with those across the entire globe. The average citizen of the United States is seven times as prosperous as the average Mexican and more than ten times as the resident of Peru or Central America. She is about twenty times as prosperous as the average inhabitant of sub-Saharan Africa, and almost forty times as those living in the poorest African countries such as Mali, Ethiopia, and Sierra Leone. And it’s not just the United States. There is a small but growing group of rich countries—mostly in Europe and North America, joined by Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan—whose citizens enjoy very different lives from those of the inhabitants of the rest of the globe. The reason that Nogales, Arizona, is much richer than Nogales, Sonora, is simple; it is because of the very different institutions on the two sides of the border, which create very different incentives for the inhabitants of Nogales, Arizona, versus Nogales, Sonora.
• This book will show that while economic institutions are critical for determining whether a country is poor or prosperous, it is politics and political institutions that determine what economic institutions a country has.  
• World inequality, however, cannot be explained by climate or diseases, or any version of the geography hypothesis.
• WE WILL ARGUE that to understand world inequality we have to understand why some societies are organized in very inefficient and socially undesirable ways. Most economists and policymakers have focused on “getting it right,” while what is really needed is an explanation for why poor nations “get it wrong.”
• …achieving prosperity depends on solving some basic political problems.
• …the failure of nations today is heavily influenced by their institutional histories, how much policy advice is informed by incorrect hypotheses and is potentially misleading, and how nations are still able to seize critical junctures and break the mold to reform their institutions and embark upon a path to greater prosperity.  
• The solution to the economic and political failure of nations today is to transform their extractive institutions toward inclusive ones. The vicious circle means that this is not easy.

Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty

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So many books…so little time.

This week, I presented my synopsis of Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson.  Published in 2012, it’s been on my reading list for…close to a decade.  But, because it was our October selection for the Urban Engagement Book Club, sponsored by CitySquare, I finally had to read it.  And, to put it mildly, I am glad I did.

The book is exactly what the title says:  it describes why nations fail.  Meaning, why some nations have so much poverty for the many.

The book has one very strong premise, and that premise is this:  I called this the point of the book:  What is the point?  When a government is set up to include people and spread possibility, through effective and inclusive political and economic institutions, people will be lifted from poverty to prosperity.  There is no other way…

As always in my synopses, I ask why is this book worth our time?  Here are my three reasons for this book.

#1 – This book is a history of many nations that are poor and stayed poor; and some nations that rose out of poverty for the many to economic prosperity for the many.
#2 – This book provides a history of the bad ideas – (of how not to do it) – on how to fail at lifting people out of poverty.
#3 – This book is a reminder that some of our beliefs and practices throughout parts of American history served too many of our people quite badly; especially people of color.  There is still much work to be done.

In my synopses, I always include a few pages of Quotes and Excerpts from the book; the “best of” Randy’s highlighted Passages.  Here are a number of the best of the best from this book:

• When they reason about why a country such as Egypt is poor, most academics and commentators emphasize completely different factors. …by its geography.
• The notion that the rulers of Egypt simply don’t know what is needed to make their country prosperous, and have followed incorrect policies and strategies in the past.
• In this book we’ll argue that the Egyptians in Tahrir Square, not most academics and commentators, have the right idea. In fact, Egypt is poor precisely because it has been ruled by a narrow elite that have organized society for their own benefit at the expense of the vast mass of people.
• The losers have been the Egyptian people, as they only too well understand.
We’ll show that this interpretation of Egyptian poverty, the people’s interpretation, turns out to provide a general explanation for why poor countries are poor. …Egypt has had revolutions in the past that did not change things, because those who mounted the revolutions simply took over the reins from those they’d deposed and re-created a similar system.
• Why are the institutions of the United States so much more conducive to economic success than those of Mexico or, for that matter, the rest of Latin America?  …The answer to this question lies in the way the different societies formed during the early colonial period.
• Though these institutions generated a lot of wealth for the Spanish Crown and made the conquistadors and their descendants very rich, they also turned Latin America into the most unequal continent in the world and sapped much of its economic potential.
• A TALE OF TWO CONSTITUTIONS It should now be apparent that it is not a coincidence that the United States, and not Mexico, adopted and enforced a constitution that espoused democratic principles, created limitations on the use of political power, and distributed that power broadly in society. The document that the delegates sat down to write in Philadelphia in May 1787 was the outcome of a long process initiated by the formation of the General Assembly in Jamestown in 1619.
• The Constitution of the United States did not create a democracy by modern standards. Who could vote in elections was left up to the individual states to determine. While northern states quickly conceded the vote to all white men irrespective of how much income they earned or property they owned, southern states did so only gradually. No state enfranchised women or slaves, and as property and wealth restrictions were lifted on white men, racial franchises explicitly disenfranchising black men were introduced. Slavery, of course, was deemed constitutional when the Constitution of the United States was written in Philadelphia, and the most sordid negotiation concerned the division of the seats in the House of Representatives among the states.
• But selling patents was a good idea only for someone like Thomas Edison, who had ideas faster than he could put them to practice. (He had a world-record 1,093 patents issued to him in the United States and 1,500 worldwide.) The real way to make money from a patent was to start your own business.
• The first country to experience sustained economic growth was England—or Great Britain, usually just Britain, as the union of England, Wales, and Scotland after 1707 is known. English prosperity also spread rapidly to Britain’s “settler colonies” of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. …Industrialization in England was soon followed by industrialization in most of Western Europe and the United States.
• If you instead make a list of the poorest thirty countries in the world today, you will find almost all of them in sub-Saharan Africa.
• As we will show, poor countries are poor because those who have power make choices that create poverty.  They get it wrong not by mistake or ignorance but on purpose.
• But growth under extractive institutions differs in nature from growth brought forth by inclusive institutions. Most important, it will be not sustained growth that requires technological change, but rather growth based on existing technologies.
• With a few exceptions, the rich countries of today are those that embarked on the process of industrialization and technological change starting in the nineteenth century, and the poor ones are those that did not.
• Slavery was dominant in the South with some counties, for example, along the Mississippi River having as much as 95 percent of the population slaves.
• The phrase Jim Crow, which supposedly originated from “Jump Jim Crow,” an early-nineteenth-century satire of black people performed by white performers in “blackface,” came to refer to the whole gamut of segregationist legislation that was enacted in the South after 1865. …In the meantime, blacks continued to be excluded from power and repressed.
• …The reason that the economic and political trajectory of the South never changed, even though slavery was abolished and black men were given the right to vote, was because blacks’ political power and economic independence were tenuous.
• The redemption of the South involved the introduction of new poll taxes and literacy tests for voting, which systematically disenfranchised blacks, and often also the poor white population.  …The Jim Crow laws created separate, and predictably inferior, schools.
• The vicious circle is based on extractive political institutions creating extractive economic institutions, which in turn support the extractive political institutions, because economic wealth and power buy political power.
• What is crucial, however, is that growth under extractive institutions will not be sustained, for two key reasons. First, sustained economic growth requires innovation, and innovation cannot be decoupled from creative destruction, which replaces the old with the new in the economic realm and also destabilizes established power relations in politics.
• Countries need inclusive economic and political institutions to break out of the cycle of poverty. Foreign aid can typically do little in this respect. …Recognizing the roots of world inequality and poverty is important precisely so that we do not pin our hopes on false promises.
• Pluralism, the cornerstone of inclusive political institutions, requires political power to be widely held in society, and starting from extractive institutions that vest power in a narrow elite, this requires a process of empowerment. …Once again, the path starting in Virginia, Carolina, Maryland, and Massachusetts and leading up to the Declaration of Independence and to the consolidation of inclusive political institutions in the United States was one of empowerment for increasingly broader segments in society.  

In this brief post, I do not have space to recount the many, well-told stories from history from the book about nations that “succeeded,” meaning, nations that created a genuine path for prosperity for the many; or the stories from history of nations that failed, meaning nations that kept far too many in poverty.

But, here are some of the key insights and points made in the book, that explain why this happened: 

  • Captain John Smith and Jamestown (1607)
  • Smith realized that if there were going to be a viable colony, it was the colonists who would have to work.
  • “I entreat you rather to send some thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers up of trees, roots, well provided, then a thousand of such as we have.”
  • The only alternative was to give the settlers incentives. In 1618 the company began the “headright system,” which gave each male settler fifty acres of land and fifty more acres for each member of his family and for all servants that a family could bring to Virginia.
  • It was the start of democracy in the United States.
  • The only option for an economically viable colony was to create institutions that gave the colonists incentives to invest and to work hard.
  • Freedom and incentives – leading to innovation and shared prosperity
  • …engine of technological breakthroughs throughout the economy was innovation, spearheaded by new entrepreneurs and businessmen eager to apply their new ideas.
  • Just as the United States in the nineteenth century was more democratic politically than almost any other nation in the world at the time, it was also more democratic than others when it came to innovation.
  • Bill Gates, like other legendary figures in the information technology industry (such as Paul Allen, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Jeff Bezos), had immense talent and ambition. But he ultimately responded to incentives. The schooling system in the United States enabled Gates and others like him to acquire a unique set of skills to complement their talents. The economic institutions in the United States enabled these men to start companies with ease, without facing insurmountable barriers. Those institutions also made the financing of their projects feasible. …These entrepreneurs were confident from the beginning that their dream projects could be implemented: they trusted the institutions and the rule of law that these generated and they did not worry about the security of their property rights.
  • The biggest of the big ideas in this book:
  • We will refer to political institutions that are sufficiently centralized and pluralistic as inclusive political institutions. When either of these conditions fails, we will refer to the institutions as extractive political institutions.
  • Extractive nations – “take”
  • Inclusive nations – give (give/provide genuine opportunity)…
  • Inclusive economic institutions require secure property rights and economic opportunities not just for the elite but for a broad cross-section of society. We call such institutions, which have opposite properties to those we call inclusive, extractive economic institutions—extractive because such institutions are designed to extract incomes and wealth from one subset of society to benefit a different subset. 
  • Inclusive economic institutions also pave the way for two other engines of prosperity: technology and education.
  • Pluralism also enshrines the notion of the rule of law…
  • Inclusive political institutions support and are supported by inclusive economic institutions.
  • Inclusive economic institutions remove the most egregious extractive economic relations, such as slavery and serfdom, reduce the importance of monopolies, and create a dynamic economy, all of which reduces the economic benefits that one can secure, at least in the short run, by usurping political power.
  • Finally, inclusive political institutions allow a free media to flourish, and a free media often provides information about and mobilizes opposition to threats against inclusive institutions, as it did during the last quarter of the nineteenth century and first quarter of the twentieth century, when the increasing economic domination of the Robber Barons was threatening the essence of inclusive economic institutions in the United States.
  • AND…the other big idea – it is system of government that matters. (Putting power – power to build economically successful lives — into the hands of the people themselves).
  • Countries such as Great Britain and the United States became rich because their citizens overthrew the elites who controlled power and created a society where political rights were much more broadly distributed, where the government was accountable and responsive to citizens, and where the great mass of people could take advantage of economic opportunities.
  • Fundamentally it is a political transformation of this sort that is required for a poor society to become rich.
  • Traditionally economics has ignored politics, but understanding politics is crucial for explaining world inequality. 
  • The Virtuous Circle vs. The vicious Circle
  • THE VIRTUOUS CIRCLE — institutions that encourage prosperity create positive feedback loops that prevent the efforts by elites to undermine them
  • THE VICIOUS CIRCLE — institutions that create poverty generate negative feedback loops and endure

And here are my five lessons and takeaways:

#1 – Enriching the few, especially the few that are powerful, is an almost certain way to keep the many in poverty.
#2 – The more a nation intentionally keeps some down in poverty, the more likely that others will also be kept down.
#3 – What was done to people lingers a long time, UNLESS there a disruptive catalyst prompting a turning point.  (Think the Black Plague; and, maybe, think the COVID pandemic).
#4 – Without a nation moving from being an extractive nation to being an inclusive nation, the change from poverty to prosperity will not come!
#5 – There are some always waiting in the wings to move the nation back toward extraction; be ever vigilant.

I have read, and presented synopses of, many books that tell specific stories of racism and slavery and the Jim Crow laws and era, and other aspects of poverty:  homelessness; hunger; and books that deal with education issues.

But this book is a true big-picture book.  What mindset leads to policies, both political and economic, that produce long-term prosperity, or long-term poverty?  This book provides an answer that makes sense.

May we all embrace, champion, and nurture inclusion – prosperity for all.

My synopsis of Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson  is Today, Thursday, October 21, 12:30 pm, over Zoom – Come Join Us – (And, here is the synopsis handout)

 

Why Nations Fail,cover

Click on image to download the full synopsis handout

If you have an open lunch time window Today, Thursday, October 21, 12:30 pm (CST), I am presenting my synopsis of Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Thursday, October 21, 2021 at 12:30 (CST) for the Urban Engagement Book Club, sponsored by CitySquare, on Zoom.

This is an important book; substantive.  You will learn!

I encourage you to download my synopsis handout, print it out, and follow along.

Come join us on Zoom.

Urban Engagement Book Club
Thursday, October 21, 2021 – 12:30 pm (CST)
Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson.

Synopsis presented by Randy Mayeux
We conclude shortly after 1:30.
(This event is free).

And, here is the Zoom link to join our gathering. 

Join Zoom Meeting

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/87185812415?pwd=bzFFK0l2NEhDVHNxZXFYVXF4V1RCQT09

Meeting ID: 871 8581 2415
Passcode: 539416

{Note: click here to see the line-up of books for our gatherings throughout the year.}

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UEBC, 10,2021Here is the more complete Zoom info.

Randy Mayeux is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Topic: UEBC, third Thursdays, 2021
Time: October 21, 12:30 PM Central Time (US and Canada)

 

Join Zoom Meeting

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/87185812415?pwd=bzFFK0l2NEhDVHNxZXFYVXF4V1RCQT09

Meeting ID: 871 8581 2415
Passcode: 539416

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Hope you can join us.

Four Thoughts from Ed Catmull’s terrific book Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces that Stand in the Way of True Inspiration

Creativity-Inc.-CoverI recently presented my synopsis of Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces that Stand in the Way of True Inspiration by Ed Catmull, for a team within a large organization.  I first presented this book a few years ago, and I always love it when I re-visit a book for a new group.

This is a terrific! book!

If you do not know, Ed Catmull is best known for his leadership at Pixar.  Here’s the opening sentence from his Wikipedia article:
Edwin Earl “Ed” Catmull (born March 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist who is the co-founder of Pixar and was the President of Walt Disney Animation Studios. He has been honored for his contributions to 3D computer graphics, including the 2019 ACM Turing Award.

I am tempted to just post all the highlighted passages from the book that I included in my synopsis handout, and say:  read all of these, and make changes accordingly.

But, I want to especially point out these four thoughts that grabbed me as I revisited the book.

Thought #1 — The universe is aligned to keep you from being creative; so be creative intentionally. 

Catmull wrote;  The thesis of this book is that there are many blocks to creativity, but there are active steps we can take to protect the creative process. (I love it when an author identifies his/her thesis).

“There are many blocks to creativity.”  Yep!

It takes work to be creative.  I think back to the excellent book by the award-winning choreographer Twyla Tharp, The Creative Habit, where she describes the work she does to pursue creativity; and, yes, it is work to be creative.

So, work on being creative!  That is thought #1.

Thought #2 — Beware of the safer path.   

The safer path is easier.  It is…safer.  But, it may be the exact wrong path to follow.

Here’s the quote from the book:
Over the years, I have met people who took what seemed the safer path and were the lesser for it. Always take a chance on better, even if it seems threatening.  

“Were the lesser for it.”  Yep… Beware that safer path!

Thought #3 — It depends on the people more than the idea… 

Here’s quite a quote from the book:
Talented storytellers had found a way to make viewers care, and the evolution of this storyline made it abundantly clear to me: If you give a good idea to a mediocre team, they will screw it up. If you give a mediocre idea to a brilliant team, they will either fix it or throw it away and come up with something better.

The good team will make a bad idea better; or just replace it if necessary.  But the bad team, or even the mediocre team, will screw up even a very good idea.

Yep!

So…build good teams; work with good teams; and be very wary of the mediocre team.

Thought #4 — People have to be able to speak their minds.

We’ve all got to speak our minds!

Here’s the quote from the book:
When it comes to interacting with other people in a work environment, there are times when we choose not to say what we really think. To address this reality, we need to free ourselves of honesty’s baggage. One way to do that is to replace the word honesty with another word that has a similar meaning but fewer moral connotations: candor.

The need for candor is having a moment.  The word candor is a better, more comprehensive word and idea than found in the words honesty, or transparency.  You can still be a little silent if you frequently practice honesty or tranparency.  Candor is about speaking up, speaking out, with such honesty and transparency.  It is about not staying silent!

There are many books that reinforce this idea.  Radical Candor by Kim Scott; more than one of the books by Brené Brown; Fierce Leadership and Fierce Conversations by Susan Scott.

But the point is this:  if there is someone on your team with things worth saying, then they should be allowed, encouraged, enticed to say what is on their mind.  Anytime a needed message is squelched, the team is lesser for it.

So build an atmosphere where speaking up is done, constantly, by all.  Candor rules!

These are just a few thoughts from the book.

The last highlight I included in my synopsis handout is pretty comprehensive.  Read and learn:

Give a good idea to a mediocre team, and they will screw it up.
Always try to hire people who are smarter than you. Always take a chance on better…
Do not discount ideas from unexpected sources. Inspiration can, and does, come from anywhere.
Many managers feel that if they are not notified about problems before others are or if they are surprised in a meeting, then that is a sign of disrespect. Get over it.
Measuring the outcome without evaluating the process is deceiving. before getting approval. Finding and fixing problems is everybody’s job.
Everybody should be able to talk to anybody.
Be wary of making too many rules.

I am high on Ed Catmull, and this book.  You might want to add it to your reading list.

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You might also want to read this blog post:
Creativity, Inc. by Ed Catmull – Key Thoughts, and My Five Lessons and Takeaways

And, you can purchase my synopsis of the book Creativity, Inc., with the audio recording of my presentation, plus my complete, thorough, comprehensive synopsis handout, by clicking here.

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{And, if you lead a team, bring me in to your team to present a synopsis of this book, or many other books that would benefit your group.  I can do this in-person, or over Zoom or Webex.  Click here to send me an e-mail.}

Accidental plagiarism in our everyday life – a reflection about life-long learning

This morning, I was on a call with facilitators who work in the training arm, as independent contractors, of a larger organization.  This is a smart, accomplished group (excluding me, of course).

In the course of our one-hour meeting, at least four times, someone said:

“I don’t remember which book I read this in, but here’s an insight I would like to share.”

All of them were good insights:

One quoted “See it, Own it, Solve it,” which another identified as coming from the book The Oz Principle.

Another said “In a recent Adam Grant book, he talked about ‘the preacher, the prosecutor, the politician,’” and another said that that was from his new book Think Again.

I quoted “Ditch the shiny badge,” from the Kouzes and Posner book Encouraging the Heart.  But, I also attributed to them the phrase:  “catch someone doing something right, not someone doing something wrong,” and, after reflection, to be honest, I’m not sure that that came from that book at all.  (Maybe Tom Peters?).

And then, I also said that a book I read called the leader the “Keeper of the Vision,” but I could not remember which book I read that in.

None of our “mistakes” in remembering were intentional.  But I think our failure to remember the exact source indicated that we read widely, and our thoughts are shaped by all the books and articles we read, all the talks we hear, all the counsel we are given.

We know much, and we learn from a broad array of sources.

So call us accidental plagiarists.

I think this is ok.

Intentional plagiarism – writing or saying something that we treat as our original thought when we know we stole it from another, is a terrible, unethical thing.  It reveals the lack of values in the plagiarist.  It should be condemned, and if one does this to make money off of it, or build reputation or brand off of it, it should be harshly punished.

But…when we say “I can’t remember the book I read this in, but_____,” that acknowledges that we got the idea from somewhere – somewhere outside of us.  It is not claiming to be original.  It is just a reminder that our memories are imperfect.

And, of course,  if we were writing in a major publication (not, like this blog post), we would be compelled to find the source.

Isn’t it true that we are all accidental plagiarists?  Maybe the trick is to be an accidental plagiarist from a book, or source, or article, or Talk, that is substantive, worth learning from, and then quoting to others.

Learn from the best.  Then quote them, even if you can’t remember exactly which of the best you are quoting.

Be a humble learner.
Be a life-long learner.
Be a grateful learner.

And give credit…even if you have to say “I forget the book I read this in, but…”

Starting Strong is good – Finishing Strong is better

You can go wrong so many ways.

One way you can go wrong is by starting out wrong.
Or starting out on the wrong path.
Or starting out just half-heartedly.

But…even if you get the start right, that is…alas…no guarantee that you will get the end right.

So, another way to go wrong is to end poorly.  To fail to finish strong.

As is often the case, there are analogies from sports contests.

This weekend, Tyson Fury was knocked down, twice, by Deontay Wilder III in his heavyweight championship boxing match; twice in the same round.

Fury had never been knocked down twice in one round.

It was the fourth round.  Still fairly early in the fight.

But, Tyson Fury, got back up, went back to work, and finished strong.  And he won the fight.

The thrill of victory...and the agony of defeat...

The thrill of victory…and for the other team,  the agony of defeat…

Or… Texas jumped out to a huge 14-0 lead over Oklahoma in their football game on Saturday, in under two minutes.  And then they carried a 28-7 lead after the first quarter.  That is starting strong!

Fans (like me) sort of…relaxed…
They should not have.

Because, alas, Texas did not finish strong, and they lost the game.

Maybe the lesson, for life, and for business, is simply this:  get off to a good start.  And then work hard on your plan until the last second of the last quarter.

Start strong.
Stay strong.
Finish strong.

That is all.

Here is the October, 2021 New York Times list of best-selling business books – Vanderbilt by Anderson Cooper is at #1

VanderbiltThe New York Times has published its list of best-selling business books for October, 2021.  For the first time in many, many months, Atomic Habits by James Clear has fallen from the #1 spot to #2.  This was knocked from the top spot by the Vanderbilts… which is…understandable.

Of the ten books on this month’s list, we have presented five at the First Friday Book Synopsis, our business book event based in Dallas.  I have presented Atomic Habits, Dare to Lead, and Extreme Ownership.  My former colleague Karl Krayer presented Thinking, Fast and Slow and Grit.

In fact, Extreme Ownership, Dare to Lead, and Atomic Habits are all books that I have presented to many client companies and leadership teams.  Two on leadership; one on personal habits, along with some insight into corporate habits.  These are all good and needed books.

I present a true synopsis of the books I select:  key excerpts, the key points and insights, and my own lessons and takeaways.  It is more than, and different from, a review.  It provides enough of the content that one can ponder key lessons, and put some into action.  And, of course, my synopses spur many to read the books on their own.

Here is the New York Times list of business best sellers.  Click over to their site for links to reviews of a couple of these books.

#1 – Vanderbilt by Anderson Cooper and Katherine Howe
#2 – Atomic Habits by James Clear
#3 – Dare to Lead by Brené Brown
#4 – The Perfect Day to Boss Up by Rick Ross with Neil Martinez-Belkin
#5 – Red Roulette by Desmund Shum
#6 – Woke, Inc. by Vivek Ramaswamy
#7 – Extreme Ownership by Jocko Willink and Leif Babin
#8 – Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman
#9 – I Will Teach You to be Rich, Second Edition by Ramit Sethi
#10 – Grit by Angela Duckworth

I presented my synopsis of this book early in 2019

I presented my synopsis of this book early in 2019


You can purchase our synopses presentations from the buy synopses tab at the top of this page.  On that page, you can search by book title. And click here for our newest additions. My synopses for Reset will be available soon.

Each synopsis comes with my comprehensive, multi-page synopsis handout, plus the audio recording of my presentation delivered at the First Friday Book Synopsis in Dallas.