Tag Archives: #socialjustice

DEI – Diversity, Equity, Inclusion – vs. Uniformity, Inequity, Exclusion – We’ve got work to do

Martin Luther King, LetterWe know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action campaign that was “well timed” in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word “Wait!” It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This “Wait” has almost always meant “Never.” We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that “justice too long delayed is justice denied.”
Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from a Birmingham Jail, April 16, 1963.


(Note from Randy:  there are so many groups that have been left out.  This post is not meant to include an exhaustive list; just a representative list).

DEI stands for diversity, equity and inclusion. Diversity is the presence of differences within a given setting. Equity is the process of ensuring that processes and programs are impartial, fair and provide equal possible outcomes for every individual. Inclusion is the practice of ensuring that people feel a sense of belonging in the workplace.


In case you have not heard, there are still plenty of ripple effects from the decades…the centuries… of racism in this country. (Not to imply that it has come close to fully going away).

And, the exclusion has not just been of Black people; it has been of every group that is a group of “the other.”  And, “the other” has been every group that was not the “white male group” for so very long.

Consider the descriptive words, and their antonyms:

Diversity vs. Uniformity
Equity vs. Inequity; Imbalance
Inclusion vs. Exclusion

In fact, for way too long — in work, in communities; in education – groups have for so very long been groups that were best described by the words Uniformity and Inequity and Exclusion.

Whenever one group experiences a hint of rejection by another group – a rejection of  “the other” – we have a failure of inclusion.

Whenever one group keeps out voices from their team discussions by building uniform teams of “all the same” people, then they lose the breadth and the creativity of the more diverse team that could be available; that would have so much to offer.

Whenever one group has to “fight” to get into THE group, then there is not equity.

We are clearly paying better attention to these concerns than we used to. In companies and organizations. And in our country overall.

But I wonder…as we give more attention o this, do we need to take a step back, and better learn from our history.

History provides a full accounting of the rigid hierarchies of who is in and who is out; who gets a chance, and who does not.

The groups that were kept out are many:  Native Americans; Black people, different groups of immigrants, all treated very differently.  Every step forward, by women, by people of color, by people form different countries, by LGBTQ people…by every member of an “out” group; by every group that was “the other” – had to work for and fight for every step forward.

Here’s a suggestion for your own DEI efforts.  Start with some history lessons.  Only when we see what we were like can we see what we could, and should, become.

I have presented synopses of numerous books that do a good and through job of presenting such history.  Contact me, and let’s talk about a few synopses of such books to add to your DEI initiatives.

Click on image for full, printable view

Click on image for full, printable view

Caste: The Origins of our Discontent by Isabel Wilkerson is my choice for the Social Justice Book of the Year, 2020 – Here are my six lessons and takeaways

Caste• The price of privilege is the moral duty to act when one sees another person treated unfairly.
• And only recently have circumstances forced us, in this current era of human rupture, to search for the unseen stirrings of the human heart, to discover the origins of our discontents.
• Caste is the infrastructure of our divisions. It is the architecture of human hierarchy, the subconscious code of instructions for maintaining, in our case, a four-hundred-year-old social order.
• Looking at caste is like holding the country’s X-ray up to the light.  
• The elevation of others amounts to a demotion of oneself, thus equality feels like a demotion.
 • The stigmatized stratify their own, because no one wants to be in last place. (anthropologist J. Lorand Motary). 
• “The ‘function’ of upholding that caste system itself, of keeping the ‘Negro in his place.’”
• This caste system would trigger the deadliest war on U.S. soil, lead to the ritual killings of thousands of subordinate-caste people in lynchings, and become the source of inequalities that becloud and destabilize the country to this day.  
Isabel Wilkerson, Caste: The Origins of our Discontent


I have presented synopses of ten books dealing with issues of social justice this year for the Urban Engagement Book Club, sponsored by CitySquare.

The fact is that a number of books I presented, dealing with issues of race, were significant, substantive books.  I would call them must-reads… The Making of a Racist by Charles Dew and The Color of Law by David Rothstein (I actually presented these two books last year); How to Be an Antiracist by Ibram X. Kendi; The Broken Road: George Wallace and a Daughter’s Journey to Reconciliation by Peggy Wallace Kennedy; among others.  I also presented a good and needed book on antisemitism: Antisemitism: Here and Now by Deborah Lipstadt. And a book on living in poverty – kind of a modern update of Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By in America by Barbara Ehrenreich.  This book is Maid: Hard Work, Low Pay, and a Mother’s Will to Survive by Stephanie Land.

But, as much as I learned from all of these books, and as important as they all are, there was in fact a crystal clear choice for my selection of The Social Justice Book of the Year, 2020, for me.  That book is Caste: The Origins of Our Discontents by Isabel Wilkerson (New York:  Random House. 2020).

A few years ago, I presented a synopsis of Isabel Wilkerson’s earlier book: The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration. It is such a profound book.  (Read my blog post: The Warmth of Other Suns by Isabel Wilkerson – A Big Book).

Caste, her new book, is a breathtaking book.  It is sweeping; it is damning; it is far-reaching.

Ms. Wilkerson is a Pulitzer Prize winning author.  Oprah chose Caste as an Oprah’s Book Club selection.  The book has been selected for numerous “best books of 2020” lists.

My comment is simple:  I learned so very much from this book.  And as I learned, I felt my heart touched, and my empathy rekindled. Even as I felt disappointment, and anger, at what our country has done.

To tell you that the book contains details of:  India’s caste system; slavery in America; the history of race in America post-Civil War; the abuse of human beings through segregation and the Jim Crow Laws; and so many more details, is still to leave too much out.

Her chapters on Nazi Germany’s reliance on the American racist systems, and her chapter on Confederate monuments, both stand out.  But really, the whole book is filled with such valuable insight.

Ms. Wilkerson wraps all of the discussion of racism into the over-arching concept of caste.  It is a convincing and compelling case.

And, in this post, I simply do not have space to tell of her utterly revealing and engaging stories; from the horrendous abuses of enslaved people by Robert E. Lee, to the use of American Laws by the Nazis, to personal mistreatment she experienced on airlines and at restaurants, and many others. (Watch the video of my synopsis, and you will hear some of these stories.  See below).

In my synopses, I always ask What is the point?  Here’s my answer for this book:
• The dominant caste looks down on the lower castes, and especially the lowest caste.  The lowest caste cannot rise any higher.  This is the essence of the evil of casteism. 

And I always ask, Why is this book worth our time?  Here are my three reasons for this book:

#1 – This book is a comprehensive look at the reality of caste, which is the real undergirding of racism in America. 
#2 – This book is a layer-by-layer journey into the omnipresence of casteism in America (and, in India). 
#3 – This book is a call to action for white people to address, abandon, renounce, and defeat casteism.

I always include quite a few pages of Quotes and Excerpts from the book – the “best of” Randy’s highlighted Passages.  Here are the best of the best that I selected from Caste:

• Few problems have ever been solved by ignoring them. …In fact, you do the opposite. You educate yourself.
• A caste system is an artificial construction, a fixed and embedded ranking of human value that sets the presumed supremacy of one group against the presumed inferiority of other groups on the basis of ancestry and often immutable traits, traits that would be neutral in the abstract but are ascribed life-and-death meaning in a hierarchy favoring the dominant caste whose forebears designed it. A caste system uses rigid, often arbitrary boundaries to keep the ranked groupings apart, distinct from one another and in their assigned places.
• In the American caste system, the signal of rank is what we call race, the division of humans on the basis of their appearance. In America, race is the primary tool and the visible decoy, the front man, for caste.
• We may mention “race,” referring to people as black or white or Latino or Asian or indigenous, when what lies beneath each label is centuries of history and assigning of assumptions and values to physical features in a structure of human hierarchy.
• It is the historic flash card to the public of how they are to be treated, where they are expected to live, what kinds of positions they are expected to hold, whether they belong in this section of town or that seat in a boardroom, whether they should be expected to speak with authority on this or that subject, whether they will be administered pain relief in a hospital, whether their neighborhood is likely to adjoin a toxic waste site or to have contaminated water flowing from their taps, whether they are more or less likely to survive childbirth in the most advanced nation in the world, whether they may be shot by authorities with impunity.
• “The mill worker with nobody else to ‘look down on,’ regards himself as eminently superior to the Negro,” observed the Yale scholar Liston Pope in 1942.  … “Let the lowest white man count for more than the highest negro.”
• Americans are loath to talk about enslavement in part because what little we know about it goes against our perception of our country as a just and enlightened nation, a beacon of democracy for the world.
• “For the first time in history, one category of humanity was ruled out of the ‘human race’ and into a separate subgroup that was to remain enslaved for generations in perpetuity.”
They were regularly whipped, raped, and branded, …tortures that the Geneva Conventions would have banned as war crimes had the conventions applied to people of African descent on this soil.
• Slavery made the enslavers among the richest people in the world.
• No current-day adult will be alive in the year in which African-Americans as a group will have been free for as long as they had been enslaved. That will not come until the year 2111.
• The dominant caste devised a labyrinth of laws to hold the newly freed people on the bottom rung ever more tightly, while a popular new pseudoscience called eugenics worked to justify the renewed debasement.
• Any action or institution that mocks, harms, assumes, or attaches inferiority or stereotype on the basis of the social construct of race can be considered racism.
• Any action or structure that seeks to limit, hold back, or put someone in a defined ranking, seeks to keep someone in their place by elevating or denigrating that person on the basis of their perceived category, can be seen as casteism.
• Many leading Americans had joined the eugenics movement of the early twentieth century, including the inventor Alexander Graham Bell, the auto magnate Henry Ford, and Charles W. Eliot, the president of Harvard University.  … the German Society for Racial Hygiene applauded “the dedication with which Americans sponsor research in the field of racial hygiene and with which they translate theoretical knowledge into practice.”
• The Nazis were impressed by the American custom of lynching its subordinate caste of African-Americans, having become aware of the ritual torture and mutilations that typically accompanied them. Hitler especially marveled at the American “knack for maintaining an air of robust innocence in the wake of mass death.”
• In the zero-sum stakes of a caste system upheld by perceived scarcity, if a lower-caste person goes up a rung, an upper-caste person comes down.

Here are a few of the key points  I included from the book, in my synopsis:

  • Caste is about: Power; Resources; Respect, authority, assumptions of competence.
  • The hierarchy of caste is not about feelings or morality. It is about power—which groups have it and which do not. It is about resources—which caste is seen as worthy of them and which are not, who gets to acquire and control them and who does not. It is about respect, authority, and assumptions of competence—who is accorded these and who is not.
  • It’s Caste; it’s race; it’s caste/race…
  • Caste and race are neither synonymous nor mutually exclusive. They can and do coexist in the same culture and serve to reinforce each other. Race, in the United States, is the visible agent of the unseen force of caste. Caste is the bones, race the skin. Race is what we can see, the physical traits that have been given arbitrary meaning and become shorthand for who a person is. Caste is the powerful infrastructure that holds each group in its place.
  • Caste is fixed and rigid. Race is fluid and superficial.
  • While the requirements to qualify as white have changed over the centuries, the fact of a dominant caste has remained constant from its inception—whoever fit the definition of white, at whatever point in history, was granted the legal rights and privileges of the dominant caste.
  • “When we speak of the race problem in America, what we really mean is the caste system and the problems which that caste system creates in America.”
  • THERE IS NO “RACE” – Two decades ago, analysis of the human genome established that all human beings are 99.9 percent the same. “Race is a social concept, not a scientific one.”
  • Caste, on the other hand, predates the notion of race and has survived the era of formal, state-sponsored racism that had long been openly practiced in the mainstream. …But caste does not allow us to ignore structure. Caste is structure. Caste is ranking.
  • Caste is the granting or withholding of respect, status, honor, attention, privileges, resources, benefit of the doubt, and human kindness to someone on the basis of their perceived rank or standing in the hierarchy.
  • Who is at the top? Who is at the bottom?
  • White
  • Asian
  • Latino
  • Black
  • While this book seeks to consider the effects on everyone caught in the hierarchy, it devotes significant attention to the poles of the American caste system, those at the top, European Americans, who have been its primary beneficiaries, and those at the bottom, African-Americans, against whom the caste system has directed its full powers of dehumanization.
  • Dominant caste, ruling majority, favored caste, or upper caste, instead of, or in addition to, white. Middle castes instead of, or in addition to, Asian or Latino. Subordinate caste, lowest caste, bottom caste, disfavored caste, historically stigmatized instead of African-American.
  • Caste — must be kept separate – otherwise the dominant caste might be polluted… (Remember  Jim Crow laws)
  • separated in eating
  • separated in learning/education
  • separated in working
  • separated in dating/marriage
  • separated in housing/separated neighborhoods
  • About white supremacy, and the Confederate States, and Confederate monuments
  • the Cornerstone Speech
  • “Its foundations are laid,” said Alexander Stephens, the vice president of the Confederacy, “its corner-stone rests upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition. This, our new government, is the first, in the history of the world, based upon this great physical, philosophical, and moral truth….With us, all of the white race, however high or low, rich or poor, are equal in the eye of the law. Not so with the negro. Subordination is his place. He, by nature, or by the curse against Canaan, is fitted for that condition which he occupies in our system.”
  • what the Confederate monuments signal to Black people
  • Germany and the Nazis, contrasted to the US and the Confederate monuments…
  • Caste/(Race) is at the very center, the very foundation, of our history:
  • the country cannot become whole until it confronts what was not a chapter in its history, but the basis of its economic and social order.

And here are my Six Lessons and Takeaways:

#1 – We live in a country with people separated by caste. Acknowledge it.
#2 – We live in a country with people separated by caste. You will see it. Recognize it when you see it.
#3 – We live in a country with people separated by caste. Stand against it.
#4 – We live in a country with people separated by caste. Speak out against it. At the personal level.
#5 – We live in a country with people separated by caste. Speak out against it. At the societal/cultural level.
#6 – We live in a country with people separated by caste. Speak out against it. At the governmental level. 

This book is a wonderful, clear book to read.  But it is also deeply disturbing.  How could our country have been like this?  How could our country still be like this?

But the book ends with a moving story of her encounter with a plumber: a white man, who was not very approachable, or attentive, or helpful.  But with her human connection, she transformed a pretty bleak encounter into a human connection.

And her final chapter beckons us toward something better.  Here’s how Bilal Qureshi put it in his review of the book:  “A surprising and arresting wide-angle reframing . . . Her epilogue feels like a prayer for a country in pain, offering new directions through prophetic language.”

Caste is my selection for the Social Justice Book of the Year, 2020.  I strongly encourage you to read it.


Click on image to download the synopsis handout for Caste

Click on image to download the synopsis handout for Caste

You can download my entire comprehensive, multi-page, synopsis handout by clicking here.

I posted my video of my synopsis presentation on YouTube.  It is embedded in this blog post:  Here is the video of my synopsis presentation of Caste by Isabel Wilkerson, from the December, 2020 Urban Engagement Book Club.

Here is the video of my synopsis presentation of Caste by Isabel Wilkerson, from the December, 2020 Urban Engagement Book Club

Caste{For other videos, click here for the YouTube Channel for Randy Mayeux.  You can find earlier months of the First Friday Book Synopsis, with synopses of business books and some sessions of the Urban Engagement Book Club, with books on social justice issues, on this channel}.

Click on image to download the synopsis handout for Caste

Click on image to download the synopsis handout for Caste


Here is the video of my synopsis presentation of Caste: The Origins of our Discontent by Isabel Wilkerson, from the December 17, 2020 Urban Engagement Book Club, sponsored by CitySquare.

I do not present synopses of books that I do not find worthwhile.  But, a thought about this book.

I have presented a number of books dealing with issues of racial justice throughout 2020.  They are all good.  But this one is the one that I would describe as the most important one.  It provides a sweeping context, and history.  And, Isabel Wilkerson is truly a great, engaging author. And, by the way, this book was a selection for Oprah’s Book Club.

(A few years ago, I presented her earlier book, The Warmth of Other Suns — another great book).

So, watch my synopsis.  Follow along on the handout.  Then…read the book.  You will understand more; you will feel more deeply; and you will better grasp and understand how deep the problem is.


I am handout intensive in my synopses presentations.  If you would like to download the synopsis handout for this presentation on Caste, click here to do so.




The Color of Money: Black Banks and the Racial Wealth Gap by Mehrsa Baradaran – My five lessons and takeaways

The Color of Money“America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked ‘insufficient funds.’” — Martin Luther King Jr, I Have a Dream, August 28, 1963

Yet despite a century of honest toil, the check has continued to be marked “insufficient funds.”

As Martin Luther King Jr. echoed a century later, “the Emancipation Proclamation freed the slave, a legal entity, but it failed to free the Negro, a person.”

President Kennedy urged Congress to pass a sweeping civil rights bill in 1963, “not merely for reasons of economic efficiency, world diplomacy and domestic tranquility—but above all because it is right.”

Mehrsa Baradaran, The Color of Money: Black Banks and the Racial Wealth Gap


This year, at both the First Friday Book Synopsis, and the Urban Engagement Book Club (sponsored by CitySquare), I have presented synopses of a number of books dealing with issues of race:  racial history; racial injustice;  systemic racism.

Last week, I presented my synopsis of The Color of Money: Black Banks and the Racial Wealth Gap by Mehrsa Baradaran at the Urban Engagement Book Club.  One participant said it best:  “it’s almost as though white people just kept finding new ways to harm Black people.”

Just a few days after I presented my synopses, our local ABC Dallas affiliate, WFAA, ran a story about banking practices that treated predominantly Black South Dallas in quite an unequal manner compared to how they treat the more affluent, more predominantly white neighborhoods in Dallas.  Read it and watch it here: They underestimate what we can do’: WFAA finds banks exclude Blacks, Hispanics in Southern Dallas from access to loans.

So, in other words, this is a long-term, nationwide story.  But it is also a very local story, still ongoing.

This book is a story about how Black people were promised genuine help through Black banks. That help never actually materialized.

In my synopses, I ask: What is the point?  Here is the point for this book:  Black banks alone cannot provide the wealth needed for Black people. Though they are excellent tools, they cannot overcome all the other systemic tools that are used to keep Black people poor.

And I ask Why is this book worth our time?  Here are my three reasons for this book:

#1 – This book is another good overarching look at racism in America; throughout the centuries, and decades. It is a good history read. 
#2 – This book provides a needed history of the Black banking struggles throughout our history.
#3 – This book is an indictment of the ways that Black banking has almost been a misdirection tool of those who want to maintain a racial hierarchy.

In my synopsis handouts, I always include a few pages of my “best” highlighted passages.  Here are quite a few from this hook:

• Banks are the drivers of wealth creation for any society. What this history reveals is that black and white Americans have had a separate and unequal system of banking and credit.
• So politically successful was the promise of black capitalism that every administration since President Nixon has adopted it in one form or another. 
• The very circumstances that created the need for these banks—discrimination and segregation—permanently limited their effectiveness and would ultimately cause their demise.  
• In fact, the dilemma faced by black banks is highlighted when contrasted with the viable banks created by Italian, Jewish, German, Irish, and Asian immigrants. None of them was systematically, uniformly, and legally segregated to the extent and for the length of time the black community was. What was formerly the Bank of Italy is now the Bank of America.
They left the ghetto first. And they did so only after being accepted as “white.” 
• Slavery, “America’s original sin,” according to James Madison, created the foundation of modern American capitalism.
• The effects of the institution of slavery on American commerce were monumental—3.2 million slaves were worth $ 1.3 billion in market value, almost equal to the entire gross national product.  
• They (enslaved people) were liquid assets that could be exchanged on markets more easily than other forms of property. Slavery’s unparalleled bounty is what caused many Americans to tolerate such a barbarous institution. 
• Between 1820 and the Civil War, banks across the South issued notes with images of slaves printed on the money.
• The currency of the South was the slave. 
• The Freedmen’s Bureau Act of 1865 formalized Sherman’s field order into a law “providing that each negro might have forty acres at a low price on long credit.” Some families even received leftover army mules. 
• As Du Bois said of Reconstruction, “the slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.” 
• The myth that free-market principles were guiding political choices was further exposed as hypocrisy because blacks could not even pay “market prices” for land. White southerners simply refused to sell land to blacks.  …Southern states even passed laws that forbade white sellers to sell land to blacks.
• An 1865 South Carolina law declared that “no person of color shall pursue or practice the art, trade, or business of an artisan mechanic or shopkeeper, or any other trade, employment or business … on his own account and for his own benefit until he shall have obtained a license which shall be good for one year only.” 
• By the end of the Reconstruction era, most freedmen were left landless, voteless, and with practically every profession blocked to them—their only choice was to grow cotton.
• Freedmen were prohibited in many states from hunting or fishing, which prevented them even from exploiting natural resources for survival.
• Southern entrepreneurs used the criminal justice system to re-enslave thousands of black men and work them, usually to death, in abhorrent labor camps.
• Blacks would be arrested under “vagrancy violations,” which could be used to arrest any free black man in the course of doing any activity at all except working for a white landlord.
• W. E. B. Du Bois, who conducted extensive interviews and data collection on sharecropping arrangements, called it “a system of peonage that kept [blacks] in debt virtually from cradle to grave.”
• “The segregated practices in the South are kind of public butchery,” noted Saul Alinsky. “It’s visible. There’s bleeding all over the place. Up here [in the North] we use a stiletto, it’s internal bleeding, it’s not visible, but it’s just as deadly.” 
• By the year 2000, almost 800,000 black men were in prison, compared to 600,000 who were in college.  Thus, there were more black men in prison than had been held under slavery in 1850.
• Today, black families have an average net wealth of $11,000 compared to a white family’s average of $141,900. The wealth gap exists at every income and education level. On average, white families with college degrees have over $300,000 more wealth than black families with college degrees.
• For example, JPMorgan Chase marketed its “no doc” and “liar loans” (where the lender did not verify any of the information provided on the application), claiming to investors, “It’s like money falling from the sky!”
• So profitable was the subprime market in the years preceding the crisis that banks chose not to give prime loans (those insured by the GSEs) and focused instead on subprime loans. The Wall Street Journal reported that more than 50 percent of borrowers who were sold subprime loans could have qualified for prime loans.

Here are a few other principles and points I highlighted in my synopsis handout:

  • an observation from Randy:
  • though this book is about the racism behind the push for “Black capitalism,” it is also a book about the profit motive and outright greed…
  • Black people were excluded; time and time again; from benefit after benefit…
  • The bootstraps they were given were government-guaranteed mortgage loans, from which black people were excluded.
  • the hand that drives black poverty is not a natural and invisible one, but rather the coercive hand of the state that has consistently excluded blacks from full participation in American capitalism.
  • The Homestead Acts gave out millions of acres of government land to white settlers for years.
  • For example, most blacks in the South were farmworkers and domestic workers. In devising legislation that regulated work hours, enabled unions, set minimum wages, and established Social Security, the southern bloc excluded both groups, and thus the majority of black southerners, from the protective legislation.
  • Capitalism, specifically “black capitalism,” became yet another rhetorical weapon used to rationalize economic inequality.
  • Thus…unequal (“separate; but unequal”)
  • Black capitalism and its subsequent iterations became the modern era’s justification for wealth inequality.
  • It used the materials available—commerce, credit, money, and segregation—to regenerate inequality. 
  • “They” don’t stay within the Black community…
  • Mechanics and Farmers Bank was the oldest and strongest black-owned bank in the country.mAnd for almost a century, its insurance affiliate, the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, was the largest black-controlled business institution in the world.
  • (Now) the more modern “M& F,” and announced that it would start going after a broader customer base. 
  • First…Black people are significantly unbanked and underbanked
  • As a group, blacks are more unbanked than any other race—60 percent of the black population is unbanked or underbanked, while only 20 percent of whites are in the same category. 
  • And, Black people are poor…
  • What is staggering is that more than 150 years later, that number has barely budged—blacks still own only about 1 percent of the wealth in the United States. 
  • A theory of “Racial Hierarchy” was (is) behind it all
  • A theory of racial hierarchy was used to explain away the dissonance. Blacks had to be seen as subhuman.
  • Not only were slavery and white supremacy condoned by God, but it was seen as God’s will that white men exploit the labor of the black race.
  • And since slavery was premised on white supremacy in a racial hierarchy, an ideology avowed across the country and not just in the slaveholding South, even freed blacks were restricted from full participation in commerce.
  • the 1857 Dred Scott case, which held that no black individual, free or enslaved, could claim American citizenship.
  • Unfortunately, most of the significant New Deal policies were administered in such a way as to maintain the South’s racial hierarchy, which meant an almost categorical exclusion of blacks from government subsidies.
  • Note this: Black banks are very expensive to run…
  • e.g., small deposits; needed counseling
  • About Nixon, and Reagan, and…
  • As the radical black movement gained momentum, it was met with a strong white backlash, which President Nixon rode into office.mFaced with a political quagmire, the politically savvy Nixon was able to neutralize black resistance without sacrificing the Republican coalition built on the “southern strategy.”mThe strategy included opposing all forms of legal race discrimination while rejecting any government effort at integration.mThe black militants would be met with “law and order,” and antipoverty efforts were curtailed on the grounds that they were costly and created dependence on the state. 
  • About the subprime lending crisis
  • Black people that were eligible for better loans were marketed to and sold subprime loans (especially by Countrywide, owned by Bank of America)

And here are my five lessons and takeaways:

#1 – White people need to care; and they need to find a way to make other/all white people care about the real-world struggles of Black people; especially the economic struggles.
#2 – Stronger Black banking would be a really good thing to bring about.  But, it alone will not be enough.
#3 – Greed and the profit motive have led people to use and abuse poor people to build greater fortunes; especially poorer Black people.
#4 – The problem of wealth inequality, especially as it relates to Black people, is a complex problem.  Good intentions are not enough.  We need systemic solutions to a systemic problem.
#5 – And, maybe, we just need to be a little more vocal with the phrase:  “That is racist.”

Here’s my current thinking.  I have read, and presented, a number of books dealing with issues of racial injustice and inequality.  This is not an imaginary problem.  It is a very real problem, with very real consequences.

Each book I read teaches me another way of looking at this ongoing problem.  This book certainly did.  It is worth reading; I encourage you to do so.

And after reading, and pondering, we need to act in ways to change things for the better.

A couple of other excerpts from the book, for a reminder of the ghastly history:

Senator James K. Vardaman of Mississippi, justifying the disenfranchisement of the black vote, explained, “I am just as much opposed to Booker Washington as a voter, with all his Anglo-Saxon re-enforcements, as I am to the coconut-headed, chocolate-colored, typical little coon, Andy Dotson, who blacks my shoes every morning. Neither is fit to exercise the supreme function of citizenship.”

Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina bragged in a public lecture that he did not know how many black men he had killed himself, and even advocated the extermination of the 30,000 blacks in his state.


I video-recorded my Zoom presentation of this session.  Click here to watch the video.  You can also download my multi-page, comprehensive synopsis handout.

My Synopsis of The Color of Money by Mehrsa Baradaran is today, Nov. 19, 2020, on Zoom – Come join us!

The Color of MoneyIf you have an open window, I am presenting my synopsis of The Color of Money: Blank Banks and the Racial Wealth Gap today, November 19, 2020 at 12:30 (CST) for the Urban Engagement Book Club, sponsored by CitySquare, on Zoom.

(We conclude shortly after 1:30).

Click here to download the handout.

Here is Zoom login info:


Meeting ID: 839 0193 8136
Passcode: 911528

Click here to get more information.

Come join us.

A note about our conflicting blog posts regarding Confederate Statues

A note from Randy Mayeux:
I am writing this to help readers understand some conflicting messages on this blog.


Since the beginning of the First Friday Book Synopsis in 1998,  I (Randy Mayeux) and Karl Krayer shared the presentations, and we each wrote on this blog.

A few years ago, Karl Krayer suffered a stroke, and has been unable to make synopses presentations at our monthly events, or write on this blog.  So, I have assumed full leadership of the First Friday Book Synopsis, have made two book synopses presentations each month at our monthly events. since his departure, and I have continued to write posts on this blog all along.

Karl has recently begun writing posts on this blog again.  We certainly welcome him back.  But I want to address what appears to be conflicting messages on this blog.

At the top of each post, it always says either “Randy’s blog entries” or “Karl’s blog entries.”  This is, of course, to identify the author of a post.  And Randy and Karl are the only two writers who post on this blog.

As in any collaboration, people have different opinions; sometimes on controversial issues.  In some recent posts from Karl, if one were to read other posts by me, you can see that we have a strong difference of opinion over the issue of Confederate Statues and Monuments, and even over whether or not people can change their minds over issues of racism.

I simply want to point out the obvious;  that we have these differences.

I do believe that Confederate Statues should be removed. I do believe that the Confederate Flag should not be displayed.  And, I do believe that people can change their minds on issues of race (and, other issues as well).  Karl believes the opposite, as he described in his recent posts.

Here’s an interesting note: I went to Abilene Christian University for my undergraduate degree (it was then called Abilene Christian College).  A few short years ago, the university issued a widely-distributed apology for their racism throughout much of their history.  The leadership of the university did change their minds over issues of racism.  And they needed to.  Abilene Christian did indeed have some pretty ghastly racist practices and stances in their history.

Yes, I do oppose symbols of racism, and that is what I believe Confederate Statues to be.

Here is a post that represents my thoughts, describing my strong opposition to Confederate Statues and the Confederate Flag: Two Flags, Two Meanings – The American flag and the Confederate flag.

Please note that I will be presenting synopses of books on racial issues over the next few months at the First Friday Book Synopsis; books that might even lead people to change their minds about issues of racism.

Why have this conversation at all on a blog focused primarily on business books and issues?   Because this issue touches every corner of business – relationships between employees, between employers and employees, between business and client representatives, and between business and its larger outreach in the community and overall culture.  Even within ourselves, we can develop deeper understanding of the issues involved.

In the coming months, as I present one synopsis of a business book and a second synopsis of a book dealing with issues of race at each of our First Friday Book Synopsis sessions,  I will be treating these books as I do in all other synopsis presentations.  My intent, as always, is to let the author speak through the words of his/her book.

Hopefully, these presentations will help us all come to better informed decisions, and wiser and more inclusive business policies, and yes, even better informed opinions within ourselves.

Issues of racial injustice have become quite a large conversation throughout our society.  I felt that I needed to explain my thoughts on the conflicting conversation one is currently reading on this blog.

Karl and I agree on far more than we differ.  But, in this moment, I felt that this word of explanation regarding this specific issue might be helpful.